MERMAID (Multi-Emission Radioisotopes - Marine Animal Imaging Device)

MERMAID (Multi-Emission Radioisotopes - Marine Animal Imaging Device) proposes a unique imaging approach that opens the door to unexplored research paths in various disciplines. Its adaptive geometry will allow several fish and marine species to be studied from a new perspective. MERMAID will be the first dedicated imaging device for radioisotope imaging of small aquatic animals, thus paving the way to innovations in sustainable aquaculture and additionally expands the use of zebrafish as a model for human diseases. In addition to gaining new basic knowledge of aquatic animals and imaging technology, several fields worldwide can benefit in the long run, e.g., to improve sustainable fish farming, or to reduce the number of sacrificed mammals used as laboratoryanimals by increasing the utility of zebrafish. Fish are essential in several research fields, as the main target of study (e.g., aquaculture, biology) or as a "surrogate" of human physiology to develop models of disease. For the latter, zebrafish is a recognized biological model. Compared to laboratory mice, zebrafish requires less space and breed very fast. As the continuously increasing demand of fishery products negatively affects the environment, many efforts are put on developing sustainable fish farming. If food chains and their interlinking could be visualized, we could count on an exceptional tool to optimize growth rates and reduce environmental impact. Molecular imaging techniques are well-established tools to explore functional processes in living beings. In particular, Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a widely used nuclear imaging modality in medical diagnostics and biomedical research. For the latter, rodents are often the animals of choice, and dedicated PET systems are commercially available. These scanners, however, are inappropriate for aquatic animals; available spatial resolution is insufficient for small fishes.

Through a flexible detector geometry, imaging of various animal shapes and sizes will be possible. One of the goals of this project is to build and characterise such a demonstrator for nuclear imaging of aquatic animals, based on state-of-the art detector components. In software studies, we additionally plan to combine PET with a Compton Camera (CC). The latter will allow the detection sensitivity to be significantly improved, adding a high level of geometrical flexibility and complementary tomographic information. The CC should also improve MERMAID performance for non-pure positron emitters and even produce images of single-gamma emitters. Therefore, a large variety of radionuclides could be used. This unique hybrid detection concept will require also a novel image reconstruction software, aimed to jointly reconstruct tomographic images from PET and CC within a single algorithm. For the delivery of the radiotracer, novel methodologies will be investigated. Aquatic micro-organisms, such as micro-algae, will be used as radioactivity carriers. Certain micro-organisms, when labeled with specific radionuclides and combined with an adequate imaging device, could provide relevant information about dynamic processes of interest, such as feed paths and intake.


This is part of ATTRACT that has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme.


[ 2021 ] [ 2020 ] [ 2019 ] [ 2018 ]

2021[ nach oben ]

  • Sarrut, D., Bala, M., Bardiès, M., Bert, J., Chauvin, M., Chatzipapas, K., Dupont, M., Etxebeste, A., Fanchon, L. M., Jan, S., Kayal, G., Kirov, A. S., Kowalski, P., Krzemien, W., Labour, J., Lenz, M., Loudos, G., Mehadji, B., Ménard, L., Morel, C., Papadimitroulas, P., Rafecas, M., Salvadori, J., Seiter, D., Stockhoff, M., Testa, E., Trigila, C., Pietrzyk, U., Vandenberghe, S., Verdier, M. -A., Visvikis, D., Ziemons, K., Zvolsk'y, M. and Roncali, E.: Advanced Monte Carlo simulations of emission tomography imaging systems with GATE, Physics in Medicine & Biology, 66(10), 10TR03, 2021, DOI: 10.1088/1361-6560/abf276.

2020[ nach oben ]

  • Bolke, A., Zvolsky, M., Kohlhase, N., Seeger, S., Schaar, M. and Rafecas, M.: Modelling of a Bi-Modal PET / Compton-Camera System for Non-Pure Positron Emitters, In: 2020 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference (NSS/MIC), 1-3, 2020, DOI: 10.1109/NSS/MIC42677.2020.9507915.

2019[ nach oben ]

  • Zvolsky, M., Schreiner, N., Seeger, S., Schaar, M., Rakers, S. and Rafecas, M.: Digital Zebrafish Phantom based on Micro-CT Data for Imaging Research, In: 2019 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference (NSS/MIC), 2019, DOI: 10.1109/nss/mic42101.2019.9059702.
  • Zvolsky, M., Seeger, S., Schaar, M., Schmidt, C. and Rafecas, M.: MERMAID - A PET Prototype for Small Aquatic Animal Imaging, In: IEEE NSS/MIC Conference Record, in press, 2019, DOI: 10.1109/nss/mic42101.2019.9059687.
  • Zvolský, M., Seeger, S., Schmidt, C., Bruhn, D., Schaar, M., Weller, D. and Rafecas, M.: Nukleare in-vivo Bildgebung von Zebrafischen, In: 50. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Medizinische Physik (DGMP) - Abstractband, 35, 2019.

2018[ nach oben ]

  • Schmidt, C. L., Seegers, S., Jatzek, P., Gebert, M. and Rafecas, M.: Micro-algae as radionuclide carrier for nuclear imaging of aquatic animals: a proof of concept, In: European Molecular Imaging Meeting - EMIM 2018, 2018.