SPIO Synthesis

There are several ways to produce magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, described in several publications and patents. Historically, ferrofluids have been produced by long-term grinding of bulk magnetite in the presence of stabilizing surfactant. The most common way to synthesize super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) for biomedical applications is the coprecipitation method, although numerous other approaches are becoming more prevalent as the synthesis of SPIONs with uniform core diameters becomes more desirable.

The most common method for the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles is the synthesis via the coprecipitation of ferrous and ferric salts in an alkaline medium. As complexing agent we use dextran carboxymethyldextran or polyethylene glycol. Surface complexing agents are often used to provide colloid stability and biocompatibility. Our dextran coated SPIOs are created by the addition of a base (NH3) to a di- and trivalent ferrous salt solution in the presence of the polymers. The suspension is treated with a permanent magnet and centrifuged. These magnetite nanoparticles are polydisperse with a mean hydrodynamic diameter of approximately 100 nm and are roughly spherical in shape.

SPIOs synthesized at the Institute of Medical Engineering.


2019[ to top ]
  • Rehberg, I., Richter, R., Hartung, S., Lucht, N., Hankiewicz, B. and Friedrich, T.: Measuring magnetic moments of polydisperse ferrofluids utilizing the inverse Langevin function, Physical Review B, 100(13), 134425, 2019, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.100.134425.
  • Malhotra, A., von Gladiss, A., Behrends, A., Friedrich, T., Neumann, A., Buzug, T. M. and Lüdtke-Buzug, K.: Tracking the Growth of Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles with an In-Situ Magnetic Particle Spectrometer (INSPECT), Scientific Reports, 9(10538), 2019, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-46882-6.
2018[ to top ]
  • Debbeler, C., von Gladiss, A., Friedrich, T., Buzug, T. M. and Lüdtke-Buzug, K.: New MPI Tracer Material - A Resolution Study, 33–34, 2018.
2016[ to top ]
  • Malhotra, A., Spieß, F., Stegelmeier, C., Debbeler, C. and Lüdtke-Buzug, K.: Effect of key parameters on synthesis of superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SPIONs), Current Directions in Biomedical Engineering, 2(1), 529–532, 2016, DOI: 10.1515/cdbme-2016-0117.
2015[ to top ]
  • Duda, K. and Lüdtke-Buzug, K.: Stability analysis of ferrofluids, Current Directions in Biomedical Engineering, 1(1), 10–13, 2015, DOI: 10.1515/cdbme-2015-0003.
  • Panagiotopoulos, N., Duschka, R. L., Ahlborg, M., Bringout, G., Debbeler, C., Graeser, M., Kaethner, C., Lüdtke-Buzug, K., Medimagh, H., Stelzner, J., Buzug, T. M., Barkhausen, J., Vogt, F. and Haegele, J.: Magnetic particle imaging: current developments and future directions, International Journal of Nanomedicine, 10, 3097–3114, 2015, DOI: 10.2147/ijn.s70488.
  • Kläser, K., Graeser, M., Steinhagen, D. and Lüdtke-Buzug, K.: Construction of a device for magnetic separation of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, Current Directions in Biomedical Engineering, 1(1), 306–309, 2015, DOI: 10.1515/cdbme-2015-0076.
  • Kuschnerus, I. and Lüdtke-Buzug, K.: Development and characterization of superparamagnetic coatings, Current Directions in Biomedical Engineering, 1(1), 1–4, 2015, DOI: 10.1515/cdbme-2015-0001.
  • Bienzeisler, J., Lüdtke-Buzug, K. and Schemberg, J.: Magnetic Flow Field Separation of Superparamagnetic Dextran Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles, 2015, DOI: 10.1109/IWMPI.2015.7107063.
  • Welzel, T., Debbeler, C., Graeser, M., Kaufmann, S., Kusche, R. and Lüdtke-Buzug, K.: Analyzing Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (SPIONs) using Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy, 2015, DOI: 10.1109/IWMPI.2015.7107062.
  • Debbeler, C., Boy, A. and Lüdtke-Buzug, K.: Synthesis of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles under Ultrasound Control, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Biomedizinische Technik Jahrestagung, 60(s1), s-27, 2015, DOI: 10.1515/bmt-2015-5000.
2014[ to top ]
  • Lindemann, A., Lüdtke-Buzug, K., Fraederich, B. M., Gräfe, K., Pries, R. and Wollenberg, B.: Biological impact of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic particle imaging of head and neck cancer cells, International Journal of Nanomedicine, 9, 5025–5040, 2014, DOI: 10.2147/ijn.s63873.
  • Baumann, K., Stegmann-Frehse, J., Rody, A., Gräfe, K., Lüdtke-Buzug, K., Buzug, T. and Finas, D.: Weiterentwicklung des SNLB-Konzept unter Verwendung von SPIOs beim Mammakarzinom - Prozessierung der Nanopartikel im Organismus, Senologie, 11-A13, 2014, DOI: 10.1055/s-0034-1375372.
  • Lüdtke-Buzug, K. and Debbeler, C.: Superparamagnetic Coatings for Magnetic Particle Imaging, 2014, DOI: 10.1515/bmt-2014-5009.
  • Lüdtke-Buzug, K. and Debbeler, C.: Development of SPION-Coatings for Visualization of Surgical Instruments in Magnetic Particle Imaging, 2014.
  • Lüdtke-Buzug, K. and Debbeler, C.: Development of Superparamagnetic Surface Coatings, 158, 2014.
2013[ to top ]
  • Henrik, R., Marlitt, E., M., B. T. and Kerstin, L.-B.: Simulation of the magnetization dynamics of diluted ferrofluids in medical applications, Biomedizinische Technik / Biomedical Engineering, 58(6), 601–609, 2013, DOI: 10.1515/bmt-2013-0034.
  • Lüdtke-Buzug, K.: Magnetische Nanopartikel - Tracer für Magnetic Particle Imaging, 15, 2013.
  • Krieger, J., Köhler, K., Graeser, M. and Lüdtke-Buzug, K.: Construction of a Spectrometer to Measure the Cotton-Mouton Effect of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles, 2013, DOI: 10.1515/bmt-2013-4102.
  • Debbeler, C., Müller, J. and Lüdtke-Buzug, K.: Micro CT-based validation of iron concentration for MPI tracers, 2013, DOI: 10.1109/IWMPI.2013.6528337.
  • L, A. and K, L.-B.: Investigation of Different Tissue Samples with ΜCT and MPS for Determination of Iron Oxide Concentration in Tracers for MPI, 2013, DOI: 10.1515/bmt-2013-4100.
  • Oberle, A. and Lüdtke-Buzug, K.: Stability Analysis Of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (Spions) At 37 °C, 2013, DOI: 10.1515/bmt-2013-4099.
  • Finas, D., Baumann, K., Sydow, L., Heinrich, K., Gräfe, K., Rody, A., Lüdtke-Buzug, K. and Buzug, T.: Superparamagnetic nanoparticles in lymphatic tissue - Detection and distribution in a breast cancer model for magnetic particle imaging, 2013, DOI: 10.1109/IWMPI.2013.6528390.
2012[ to top ]
  • Lüdtke-Buzug, K.: Magnetische Nanopartikel - Von der Synthese zur klinischen Anwendung, Chemie in unserer Zeit, 46(1), 32–39, 2012, DOI: 10.1002/ciuz.201200558.
  • Finas, D., Baumann, K., Sydow, L., Heinrich, K., Gräfe, K., Buzug, T. and Lüdtke-Buzug, K.: Detection and distribution of superparamagnetic nanoparticles in lymphatic tissue in a breast cancer model for magnetic particle imaging, 81–83, 2012, DOI: 10.1515/bmt-2012-4158.